Advanced, minimally invasive treatments at affordable costs only at Medfin.

Advanced, minimally invasive treatments at affordable costs only at Medfin.

The ophthalmologist conducts a thorough evaluation of the distortion reported by the patient to ascertain the exact cause impacting the retina for effective treatment subsequently. Following are the techniques that the doctor may use:

  • Amsler grid test: Amsler grid test checks the clarity of the patient’s central vision. The patient is shown grid lines and asked to point where the blurring or deformity occurs along them to understand the degree of retinal damage. 

  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT): This technique captures exact images of the macular holes, macular edema (swelling), the extent of age-associated macular degeneration, and diagnoses epiretinal membranes. Starting the patient with a treatment regimen is an effective technique to record the response to it.

  • Fundus autofluorescence (FAF): It is a protocol used to monitor the progression of certain retinal diseases such as macular degeneration. Increased retinal damage leads to an increase in a retinal pigment called lipofuscin. FAF highlights this pigment thus underlining the extent of the damage.

  • Fluorescein angiography: This technique is primarily evaluating the condition of the blood vessels supplying to the eye. It helps identify blocked, leaking, or abnormally developed blood vessels and other slight changes that may have occurred in the portion hind of the eye. Fluorescein is a dye that highlights the blood vessels in the eye in a special light. 

  • Indocyanine green angiography: It is a dye-based technique. It is to view blood vessels in the retina that are located deeper in a more difficult-to-view position. Especially the blood vessels behind the retina in the choroid tissue.

  • Ultrasound: It uses high-frequency sound waves to identify or treat tumors associated with the eye. 

  • MRI and CT scan: They are rarely used, only in cases where eye tumors or injuries may be involved.

The retinal diseases pose a hindrance to the normal vision of the affected individual.

Many of these have common signs and thus need a thorough evaluation by the doctor for effective management thereafter. The doctor to begin looks for the following signs:

  • Cobwebs or floaters

  • Blurred lines appearing wavy

  • Hindered or defective peripheral vision

  • Loss of vision

The defects in the vision are subtle, to begin with. One may have to close one eye and notice any alterations in the visual field of the eye under evaluation. 

In the case of retinal diseases, the main aim of the treatment is to slow the progression of the disease and protect the optimal vision of the affected patient.

The treatment regimen for retinal diseases is often complex and doctors resume a multifactorial approach to ensure the best possible solution.

Some conditions may need treatment under emergency. The approaches include:

  • Laser surgery: To restore a retinal hole or tear. When done immediately to a freshly diagnosed tear, it reduces the chances of retinal detachment. Laser scars the tissue under treatment and brings about a welding action that then binds the tissue under repair.

  • Scatter laser photocoagulation: It is to shrink anomalous blood vessels which may threaten bleeding in the eye. It could be an effective treatment for patients with diabetic retinopathy. 

  • Cryopexy (KRY-o-pek-see): The doctor applies an icy probe to the peripheral wall of the eye to freeze the inside of the eye, as well as the retina. The tear in the retina scars and attaches the retina back to the eyewall.

  • Pneumatic retinopexy (RET-ih-no-pek-see): This technique is performed by injecting gas or air into the eye. It is to treat specific types of retinal detachments. It could be combined with other techniques such as laser photocoagulation or cryopexy.

  • Scleral (SKLAIR-ul) buckling surgery: It is again used to treat retinal detachment. The surgeon patches a piece of silicone to the sclera (outside eye surface). This shifts the sclera and relieves the pulling pressure of the vitreous on the retina allowing the retina to heal. The procedure can be used with other protocols depending on the diagnosed condition/s.

  • Vitrectomy (vih-TREK-tuh-me): Here the vitreous (gel-like fluid filling the eye) is removed and replaced with liquid, air, or gas. This protocol is followed in case of bleeding or inflammation, which may hinder a clear view of the retina to be treated. This protocol is used in combination with various treatment protocols involved for retinal detachment, eye trauma, epiretinal membrane, retinal tear, diabetic retinopathy, or macular hole.

  • Injecting medicine into the eye: The medication is injected in the vitreous of the eye. Recommended for treatment of diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, or damaged blood vessels inside the eye.

  • Retinal prosthesis: It is a treatment modality for patients with extreme vision loss or even blindness. Here there is irreparable damage to the retina. A small chip is implanted in the retina. This chip receives signals from a video camera in the eyeglasses. The implanted electrode picks signals of visual information received from the camera and relays it further for the brain to interpret.

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