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Kidney stones - scientifically known as Renal Calculi and medically termed as Nephrolithiasis or Urolithiasis (depending on its location)
It is a condition characterized by the presence of hard mineral and salt crystals in one or both kidneys. The causes range from genetics and diet to medications and metabolic diseases.
Kidney stones vary in size as well as shape. The smaller ones may pass on their own while passing urine with little or no pain, but those that are larger may get obstructed, leading to severe pain and bleeding.
On experiencing any symptoms, one must seek care from a doctor or urologist to avoid any further complications.
Kidney stones can be diagnosed using the following:
Imaging that can help to rule out obstruction are:
*Point to note: The contrast dyes used in imaging tests can cause kidney damage in those with impaired kidney function and hence patients must inform about medications that he/she is taking prior to tests being performed.
1.Overview: When the doctor gets access to the kidney stones, he breaks the stones with a special instrument. Now, as the fragments become small, he removes them from the body.
4.Advantages of this Procedure: Only a 1 cm incision is made in the flank (minimally invasive) in PCNL. Also, the stones can be visualized directly and removed. PCNL is a highly successful procedure for kidney stone removal and the benefits of PCNL outweigh its risks. Also, the post-operative pain is very less.
Kidney stones can be made up of different types of crystals depending upon their composition. Identifying it helps determine the course of treatment and prevents its reoccurrence. The various types are:
It depends on the type of stone and intensity of symptoms. The kidney stones which are smaller with minimal symptoms can be treated as follows:
Medications known as an alpha-blocker, relaxes the muscles in the ureter, helping the patient pass the kidney stone more quickly and with less pain.
The kidney stones that are larger in size causing severe pain, blood in the urine, and those associated with urinary tract infections may require extensive treatment options such as:
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
ESWL is a procedure that uses sound waves to break up kidney stones — depending on size and location. It may require sedation or light anesthesia.
This procedure uses a ureteroscope to remove a smaller stone in the ureter or kidney.
The scope has a small wire with a camera attached when inserted into the urethra and is passed into the bladder. The doctor then uses an instrument to remove the stone.
Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)
This procedure may require general or spinal anesthesia.
An endoscope with fiber optics is inserted in the retrograde fashion i.e. through the urinary tract opening, via the ureter that connects to the kidneys.
Once the stones can be accessed, they are subjected to Holmium laser and fragments may be grabbed by forceps or ancillary devices-stone baskets.
This surgery uses a small incision on the back that removes the larger stones in the kidney under general anesthesia. The doctor may recommend this surgery if ESWL is unsuccessful.
Parathyroid Gland Surgery
Kidney stones may arise as a complication of hyperparathyroidism.
It becomes important to treat this underlying condition to avoid the occurrence of stones in the future.
Parathyroid glands are located on the four corners of the thyroid below Adam's apple are affected by this condition due to any growth or starts to function by excessively producing a parathyroid hormone that causes the calcium levels to become very high and calcium phosphate kidney stones may form as a result.
The formation of kidney stones can be controlled by removing the growth from the gland.
The doctor may recommend treatment of the condition that's causing the parathyroid gland to overproduce the hormone.
1.Overview: It is a minimally invasive option for treating stones in which the doctor inserts a scope with a camera attached to it down the urethra through the ureter to reach the bladder. Stones smaller in size can be removed with additional instruments like a small basket. Larger stones can be fragmented into smaller pieces with a laser or lithotripsy and then removed.
4.Advantages of this Procedure: You’ll be stone-free with a single operation. It is safe and effective, and requires no incisions (cuts). This procedure can treat stones located anywhere in the ureter and kidney. It can be used to treat even pregnant women and obese people.
The causes of kidney stones are multifactorial. It forms due to an excess amount of the minerals and salts in the urine that crystallize and stick together, becoming more in composition than the fluid in the urine can dilute.
Factors that increase the risk of developing kidney stones include:
Dehydration: This is the most important cause of kidney stones. This is the case especially for those who drink less than 1 liter of water per day, live in tropical climates, and sweat a lot.
Other factors that increase the risk of Kidney stones:
Medical conditions that could lead to kidney stones:
1.Overview: The scope is placed through the urethra into the bladder and then through the ureter into the urine-collecting part of the kidney. The stone is seen through the scope, then manipulated or crushed or evaporated.
4.Advantages of this Procedure: RIRS leads to a quicker extraction of stones, does not lead to much pain, causes minimal blood loss and causes no damage to renal tissue. The recovery is fast. It’s minimally invasive, less morbid, causes less inconvenience.
A patient with kidney stones may be asymptomatic unless the stones move through the urinary tract, with the most common symptom being- severe abdominal pain (known as renal colic) associated with nausea and vomiting.
Gastrointestinal symptoms include
Urinary signs and symptoms of kidney stones:
1.Overview: It uses high frequency sound waves from an external source to break the kidney stones into small pieces and allow them to pass through the urinary tract.
4.Advantages of this Procedure: It is the least invasive procedure, requires no incision and is safe. There is reduced hospital stay and less recovery time.
Complications that arise from leaving kidney stones untreated are:
1.Overview: A hollow tube (cystoscope) equipped with a lens is inserted into your urethra and slowly advanced into your bladder. Once the stone is located, it may be snared with a basket device and removed. A large kidney stone may be broken into smaller pieces for removal from the body.
4.Advantages of this Procedure: No need of incisions.
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